Today we’re talking about the history of islamic expansion in a nutshell. According to Khadija bint Khuwaylid (his first wife), Muhammad’s first revelation was the event in which Muhammad was visited by the archangel Gabriel in 610 AD The event took place in a cave called Hira, located on the mountain called Jabal an-Nour, near Mecca. Soon after Muhammad’s revelation, he started to form a theology. This created friction with ideologies of the priests that controlled Mecca. In 622 AD He moved to Medina. In the decade that follows he would grow his influence and power, conquering Mecca in the process. And on June 8, 632 AD Muhammad died with most of the Arab peninsula under his control. The land that Muhammad conquered fell under the control of Rashidun Caliphate (632–661 AD) they expanded through Conquest taking over Palestine, Jordan, Egypt, Northern Libya, Syria Iraq, Southern Turkey, Azerbaijan and Iran. They were succeeded by the Umayyad caliphate from (661-750 AD) they swept through Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Afghanistan, Pakistan and even the some of the oldest Christian kingdoms of Armenia and Georgia. They only stopped invading Europe through Spain and Portugal when Charlemagne crushed the Islamic Army in Tours France in 732 AD.
And again three years later in Arles France the Islamic forces were crushed and beaten back. In 750 AD the Abbasid dynasty rose to power consolidating the gains of the earlier Caliphates. Initially, they conquered Mediterranean islands including the Balearics, and in 827 AD the Sicily. Over this time the caliphate had massive brutal campaigns against the Christians, Jews, Hindus and Zoroastrians killing millions and raping many more. Also forcing all non-muslims to pay the jizya a large tax forcing many covert or die. During this time, the caliphate that started to fractionalized with the Fatimid Caliphate taking center stage with them controlling North Africa the Levant and Western Arabia. The Buyid dynasty in Iraq and Persia. The new Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba controlling Iberia and sometimes North Africa later morphing into the Moorish Almohad Caliphate. There further Invasion into the Caucasus and Asia were stopped by the European Crusades in 1096 AD and Mongols in the 1200’s.
But during this time the Sultanate Turks were growing power in Anatolia carving out the last remnants of the Roman Empire in Constantinople. The Ayyubid dynasty grew into the footprint of the Fatimid Caliphate and they expanded South into Ethiopia and Sudan.
An often-overlooked period of Islamic expansion happened in Asia during this time places like Indian Subcontinent, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines were becoming Islamist. Form 1299 AD the Ottomans Roots Grew From a small tribe in Anatolia to May 29, 1453 taking over Constantinople and controlling most all of Anatolia and Greece. Over the next 200 years they conquered Serbia, Bulgaria, Albania, Bosnia, Croatia, Hungary, Southern Romania and Cyprus. They also acquired the Levant, North Africa, Iraq and Southern Caucasus. They also started a large Navy and extorted wealth, going through the Mediterranean and Black Sea. The Ottomans European invasions were crushed at the Battle of Vienna when they were 1529 and The Great Turkish War started in 1683 and ended in 1699 resulting in the loss of Loss of Hungary and the Morea signifying the end of expansion of the Ottoman Empire.
Over the next 100 years the Ottoman Empire would change very little and Europeans would soon develop past them. In the nineteenth Century they started to lose major military conflicts, by the turn of the twentieth century they lost most of their land in the Balkans, North Africa and the Caucasus. And with the rise of the colonial powers of the UK and France Islamic power was at an all time low and the division of the Ottomans at the end of the first world war there were no Islamic powers. Seeing that it was difficult to hold together the states that they were able to be formed and to be able to develop Modern nations. Nations economically and militarily in the old Islamic model declined and Islamist were bereft of their natural state, and became a demographic, revolutionary and genocidal methods of obtaining power. As you can see in countries like Nigeria, Sudan, Ethiopia, Lebanon, Bosnia, Albania and Eritrea.
I hope that civilized and decent societies will unite to defeat the ruthless scourge that is radical and expansionist Islam. Please share the article in order to help us do so.